Apart from Javanese, the Japanese also recruited Chinese, Malays, and Tamils.

Romusha's. Ro = labor, mu = duty, sha = person. The best translation of this term is indeed forced laborer. The estimated number of registered romushas on Java alone was already over 5 million. (Romushas of Java)

After these Romusha, came the Hei-Ho-ers, the Indigenous soldiers in Japanese service. Because Japan needed more people for its army. They proceeded to train the Indigenous people in military skills. They were encouraged by Soekarno with the slogan: "Sampai titik darah pangabissan" (until the last drop of blood!) and the slogans: "Inggris di linggis, America distrika" (we beat the English and flatten the Americans!).

The Hei-Ho-ers were doing well under the Japanese. Then there were also the Pemoedas, the youths.


From the various residencies, young people were sent to main cities where Latihans were held. At these "Latihan kejiwaan" (spiritual exercise, the main practice of the Subud society, existing for centuries in Java), they received spiritual exercises. Such as: tuning in to each other, harmonizing, opening up to the subconscious, becoming aware of the inner self, elevating themselves to a higher level. It is claimed that this has a beneficial influence, but in practice it proves otherwise. It even turns out to have a harmful effect. In any case, it gives them a different view of the world. They were taught to hate everything that was Western. It was all about being Eastern! Well-fed and clothed with money from the Japanese, they were sent back to their villages as fervent propagandists for the sons of Japan.


The difference with the resistance in the Netherlands was that there were more enemies here. The risk of getting caught was greater. Many more people were killed here. Not only did you have the Japanese to contend with, but also the nationalists who could betray and oppose you. This put the fair-skinned Indo-Europeans in the most danger.

During the Japanese occupation, the Kempetai (the Japanese military secret police) and the Toketai (the Japanese naval police) systematically and on a large scale violated the human rights of suspected resistance members. They were guilty of war crimes: abuse, torture, and murder. The "trial" was conducted in principle in Japanese and otherwise in Indonesian. As the occupation progressed, trials became less frequent and the method of "kikosau" was used, in which the convicted person was killed or beheaded with a bayonet. (Eyewitnesses of war) The first executed verdict of military discipline was the summary beheading of members of the Dutch East Indies Radio Broadcasting (NIROM) who had ended their final program with the Dutch national anthem.


There was a need to bow to Japan, for the Emperor. Father called his men together and had them bow, in the wrong direction! Did they actually know where Japan was located? There was a registration requirement. People also had to pay for that. Japanese also occupied hospitals and sometimes left a portion for Europeans and natives. Pharmacies were closed, they were also for the Japanese.